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English billiards used to be one of the two most-competitive cue sports along with the carom game balkline, at the turn of the 20th century and is still enjoyed today in Commonwealth countries.
Another pocket game, Russian pyramid and its variants like kaisa are popular in the former Eastern bloc. In straight rail, a player scores a point and may continue shooting each time his cue ball makes contact with both other balls.
Some of the best players of straight billiards developed the skill to gather the balls in a corner or along the same rail for the purpose of playing a series of nurse shots to score a seemingly limitless number of points.
The first straight rail professional tournament was held in where Jacob Schaefer Sr. With the balls repetitively hit and barely moving in endless "nursing", there was little for the fans to watch.
In light of these skill developments in straight rail, the game of balkline soon developed to make it impossible for a player to keep the balls gathered in one part of the table for long, greatly limiting the effectiveness of nurse shots.
A balkline is a line parallel to one end of a billiards table. In the game of balkline, the players have to drive at least one object ball past a balkline parallel to each rail after a specified number of points have been scored.
Another solution was to require a player's cue ball to make contact with the rail cushions in the process of contacting the other balls.
This in turn saw the three-cushion version emerge, where the cue ball must make three separate cushion contacts during a shot.
This is difficult enough that even the best players can only manage to average one to two points per turn. This is sometimes described as "hardest to learn" and "require most skill" of all billiards.
There are many variations of games played on a standard pool table. Popular pool games include eight-ball , nine-ball , straight pool and one-pocket.
Even within games types e. A few of the more popular examples of pool games are given below. In eight-ball and nine-ball, the object is to sink object balls until one can legally pocket the winning eponymous " money ball ".
Well-known but waning in popularity is straight pool, in which players seek to continue sinking balls, rack after rack if they can, to reach a pre-determined winning score typically Related to nine-ball, another well-known game is rotation , where the lowest-numbered object ball on the table must be struck first, although any object ball may be pocketed i.
Each pocketed ball is worth its number, and the player with the highest score at the end of the rack is the winner. In both one-pocket and bank pool, the players must sink a set number of balls; respectively, all in a particular pocket , or all by bank shots.
In snooker, players score points by alternately potting red balls and various special " colour balls ". Speed pool is a standard billiards game where the balls must be pocketed in as little time as possible.
Rules vary greatly from tournament to tournament. The International Speed Pool Challenge has been held annually since Dating to approximately , English billiards, called simply billiards  in many former British colonies and in the UK where it originated, was originally called the winning and losing carambole game , folding in the names of three predecessor games, the winning game , the losing game and the carambole game an early form of straight rail , that combined to form it.
English billiards requires two cue balls and a red object ball. The object of the game is to score either a fixed number of points, or score the most points within a set time frame, determined at the start of the game.
Snooker is a pocket billiards game originated by British officers stationed in India during the 19th century, based on earlier pool games such as black pool and life pool.
The name of the game became generalized to also describe one of its prime strategies: to " snooker " the opposing player by causing that player to foul or leave an opening to be exploited.
In the United Kingdom, snooker is by far the most popular cue sport at the competitive level, and major national pastime along with association football and cricket.
It is played in many Commonwealth countries as well, especially in Asia. Snooker is uncommon in North America, where pool games such as eight-ball and nine-ball dominate, and Latin America and Continental Europe , where carom games dominate.
The first World Snooker Championship was held in , and it has been held annually since then with few exceptions.
Technically a form of pocket billiards, snooker has its own worldwide sporting community separate from that of pool. These combine aspects of carom and pocket billiards, and are played on tables with pockets often as hazard s not targets.
These are variations using small disks instead of balls, and light-weight cue sticks. Cue sports. This article covers the word as an umbrella term for cue sports in general.
For specific games known as "billiards" and all other uses of the term, see Billiard disambiguation. Engraving of an early billiards game with obstacles and targets, from Charles Cotton 's book, The Compleat Gamester.
Main category: Cue sports equipment. Main article: Billiard ball. Main article: Billiard table. Main article: Baize. Main article: Rack billiards.
Main article: Cue stick. Main article: Carom billiards. Main article: straight rail. Main article: Balkline.
Main articles: one-cushion caroms and three-cushion billiards. Main article: Pool cue sports. Main article: English billiards.
Main article: Snooker. Main category: Carom billiards. Artistic billiards a major world cue sport Balkline Four-ball yotsudama , sagu One-cushion carom Straight rail Three-cushion billiards a major world cue sport See also "Hybrid games", below.
Target carom games Five-pin billiards a major international cue sport Goriziana or nine-pin billiards. Main article: Pocket billiards.
Main category: Pool cue sports. American rotation Artistic pool a major world cue sport Bank pool Baseball pocket billiards Bowlliards Chicago Cribbage Cutthroat Eight-ball a major world cue sport; informally a.
Golf billiards and its variant, around-the-world Russian pyramid a major cue sport in Eastern Europe and countries of the former USSR See also "Snooker games" and "Hybrid games", below.
Main category: Snooker. Snooker a major world cue sport Six-red snooker American snooker Brazilian snooker Volunteer snooker Snooker plus Power Snooker See also golf billiards, above.
Bottle pool Cowboy pool English billiards a major world cue sport Five-pin billiards , historically Poker pool Kaisa. Main category: Obstacle billiards.
Bagatelle obsolete Bar billiards Bumper pool Danish pin billiards and other pin billiards games Devil's pool and victory billiards Bottle pool , skittle pool pin pool , and Italian five-pin billiards and goriziana are vestigially classifiable here as well.
Carrom some variants of this table-top game use miniature cues; mostly played with the hands Crokinole some variants of this combination of carrom and shuffleboard use miniature cues Novuss uses full-length cues.
Main category: Ground billiards. Outdoor games played on a lawn, field or court, played with varying equipment that may include hoops, pins, holes or other targets or obstacles, and clubs, curved-head sticks, or mallets.
Most such games are obsolete, aside from croquet. Golf and field hockey , as well as stick-less games such as bocce , boules and bowls , are historically related.
Croquet popular lawn game and former Olympic sport Jeu de mail obsolete Pall-mall obsolete Trucco obsolete.
Main category: Finger billiards. These are developments from cue sports that dispense with the cues, and are played with the hands directly.
Finger billiards or hand billiards on a carom table Boccette an adaptation of five-pin billiards to cueless play Finger pool on a pool table Crud the only billiards-based contact sport Bocce billiards or bocce pool an adaptation of the lawn game bocce to billiard or pool tables.
Lausanne, Switzerland : International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on Retrieved Lausanne: World Confederation of Billiards Sports.
Homepage and very name of organization. Blue Book Publications, June The History of Snooker and Billiards. Haywards Heath: Partridge Press.
This is a revised version of The Story of Billiards and Snooker The Pool Shop. Archived from the original on November 19, Retrieved 1 December April 13, All the Year Round.
Archived from the original on June 13, Retrieved August 14, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. Explosive Teeth.
Archived at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved January 2, Retrieved February 24, The piece is largely an interview of Hoskins. The History of Snooker and Billiards rev.
The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. New York: Lyons Press. Alciatore, David G. The Illustrated Principles of Pool and Billiards.
Byrne, Robert World Confederation of Billiards Sports. Based in the beautiful city of Prague since , we connect creativity, technology and data to create unique, long-running games for everyone.
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